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Some of these individuals participated in the ASC Oral History Project. For more information, please go to the Oral History Project page.


Dr. Larry M. Salinger, 55, of Bono, died Saturday, November 23, 2013 at St. Bernard¹s Medical Center in Jonesboro. Larry, an only child, was born January 7, 1958, in Boston, Massachusetts to Dr. Gerhard and Mrs. Ursel Salinger (nee Ehrlich), both originally of Berlin, Germany. He grew up in southern California, and was a 1976 graduate of Torrey Pines High School in San Diego, California. Larry earned a Bachelor of Arts in Social Ecology from the University of California at Irvine (1981), a Master of Arts in Forensic Studies from Indiana University at Bloomington (1983), and his doctorate in Sociology from Washington State University (1992). Dr. Salinger taught in the Department of Criminology, Sociology, and Geography at Arkansas State University from 1990 until his death, most recently serving as department chair. He was a dedicated professor and mentor to thousands of ASU students in his 23 years with the department. Dr. Salinger also taught at Adrian College in Adrian, Michigan from 1987 to 1990, and was a visiting professor at Eastern Washington University in Cheney, Washington from 2001 to 2002. He authored or co-authored ten books on social deviance, white-collar crime, and counterterrorism tactics, as well as numerous journal articles and government reports. Dr. Salinger was proud to contribute to his community, both on-campus and off. As well as serving on numerous university committees, Dr. Salinger was a founding member of the Executive Board of the Northeastern Arkansas Children¹s Advocacy Center. He was also proud to be a member of the American Society of Criminology, the American Association of University Professors, and the Strong-Turner Alumni Chapter at ASU. His commitment to his students and the university could only be matched by his strong sense of social justice and moral responsibility toward all of humanity.

In his leisure time, Larry enjoyed cooking, spending time working on his garden, listening to bluegrass music, and going to ASU football games. Larry is survived by one son, Mr. Jeremiah Salinger a current graduate student at Arkansas State University and formerly resident of Spokane, Washington; his life partner, Ms. Robin Pawson of Bono; the mother of his child, Mrs. Denise Routt of Spokane; and a host of other family and friends. He was preceded in death by his parents. Graveside service will be at 2:00pm Friday November 29, 2013 at Temple Israel Cemetery in Jonesboro with Cantor Dr. David Levenbach officiating. Emerson Funeral Home of Jonesboro is in charge of all arrangements.

A memorial service for family, friends, and all of Dr. Salinger¹s current and former students will be announced at a later date by his family. In lieu of flowers, the family requests that memorials be made to the Northeastern Arkansas Children¹s Advocacy Center in Jonesboro.


On Sunday, October 20, 2013 Dr. L. Edward Wells passed away following unsuccessful efforts to treat leukemia.  Dr. Wells received his PhD in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin in 1976, after which he was a Postdoctoral Fellow at Stanford and then at Indiana University.  He taught at Purdue University for seven years and in 1986 was hired at Illinois State University where he taught and conducted research until his passing.  Although he retired in 2012 he continued to mentor students and conduct research.

Dr. Wells was known for his keen intellect, his compassion, and his dry sense of humor.  His knowledge was wide-ranging.  His research interests were broad and his personal interests even broader.  There were few subjects about which he didn’t have some knowledge.  His published research included self-concept, broken homes and delinquency, criminological theory, delinquency, gangs, homicide, police vehicle pursuits, community policing, rural crime, suburban policing, rural policing, crime and policing in American Indian communities, and methamphetamine production.  Much of his work was empirical, including his publications on meta-analysis.

Ed was known for his kindness and his genuine humility.  He had a love of numbers and of finding patterns, both of which served him well in his work involving both quantitative research and theory. He was always there to help students and other faculty.  Ed was often the smartest person in the room but would never have accepted that description.  His colleagues at ISU repeatedly pushed to have him recognized for his scholarly accomplishments, but he steadfastly refused to even have his materials submitted.

Dr. Wells was often described as the soul of the Department of Criminal Justice Sciences.  His wisdom, fairness and kindness always steered the department to move in the right direction, to strive for excellence and to do right by each other and our students.  His presence on the 4th floor of Schroeder Hall will be missed in ways words cannot describe.

Dr. Wells' memorial service was held at Unitarian Universalist Church on Saturday November 9 at 2p.

In lieu of cards or flowers, the Wells' family would appreciate contributions to the Department of Criminal Justice Sciences' Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Scholarship fund. This award is made to a junior or above who is an underrepresented group.  The recipient must demonstrate outstanding academic achievement and embodies the teaching and spirit of Rev. King.  One award per year is given.

Please make checks out to the ISU Foundation and on the memo line write CJS MLK Scholarship in memory of Dr. Ed Wells.  

Mail to: ISU Foundation, Campus Box 8000, Normal, IL 61790-8000.

If you have any questions, please contact Dr. Jackie Schneider at jschneider@ilstu.edu or on 309-438-2002.


On Saturday, May 11, 2013, Dr. Louis A. Mayo passed away in his sleep after a long battle with cancer. Lou was known to many long-time employees at the U.S. Department of Justice’s National Institute of Justice as “NIJ Employee #1.” Lou’s history with the agency dates to its earliest days in 1968. Famously, Lou was the author and signatory of “Regulation No. NI-1,” the very first policy memo to be issued by the newly founded National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (NILECJ), which later became the NIJ.  This was followed by a series of foundational policies, guidelines, and organizational plans authored by Lou that formed nothing less than the bedrock for what we now know as the National Institute of Justice. Lou was 84.

Dr. Lou Mayo served as a first Lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force during the Korean War as an electronics countermeasures expert and served three U.S. presidents as a Secret Service Agent on the White House detail. The day after President Kennedy was shot, Dr. Mayo received a call from the White House to immediately return to Washington to Washington to assist in the investigation. Upon leaving the Secret Service, Dr. Mayo joined the Office of Law Enforcement Assistance (OLEA) and subsequently co-founded the National Institute of Justice (then the NILECJ) where he was instrumental in developing and promoting Community Policing programs throughout the country. Dr. Mayo formed and operated PACE (Police Association for College Education – http://www.police-association.org) to encourage police departments to require BA degrees for their officers, and was founder and president of “Mayo Mayo and Associates” for over 30 years, promoting best practices in criminal justice and policing.

Lou was a thoughtful, active scholar. Some of his scholarship is archived in the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, including his paper, “Restrictive Policies for High-Speed Police Pursuits” (https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/122025NCJRS.pdf ), and “Team Policing” (video, https://www.ncjrs.gov/app/Search/Abstracts.aspx?id=82867).

Lou’s son offered this remembrance:

“My favorite story is that Dad lobbied a judge to set a small bail and then paid the bail so the person he arrested didn't have to spend Christmas eve in jail. I'm so very proud of my Dad. He was a great man and a wonderful father.”

An OJP colleague who knew Lou for many years remarked that  “the IACP Conferences won't even be the same without Lou there...who else, in the world of sole proprietors, believes in their work so much that they have a booth at IACP every year?”

Lou faithfully attended every recent NIJ Annual Conference, where he helped to host the informal NIJ Alumni event. He was also a regular attendee in recent years at NIJ holiday receptions held each year.

Lou is survived by his three children, Louis Allen Mayo III, Robert Lawrence Mayo, and Carolyn Jean Mayo Fritz, four grandchildren, Cara Mayo, Carleigh Mayo, Kelly Mayo, and Harrison Fritz, and his sister Eloise Mayo. . Friends may call on Friday, May 17 from 5-8pm at Adams-Green Funeral Home in Herndon, VA. A service celebrating Dr. Mayo’s life will be held at a later date. In lieu of flowers, the family requests that donations be made to the Louis A. Mayo Endowment for Community Policing, South Eastern Missouri University, Department of Criminal Justice and Sociology, One University Plaza, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701.


Emeritus Professor of Sociology Gerald R. Garrett, PhD (1940-2013) passed away unexpectedly in Hoosick Falls NY on January 14, 2013.  Professor Garrett received his MA and Ph.D.  degrees from Washington State University and his BA from Whitman College.  His 1971 dissertation, Drinking Behavior of Homeless Women, anticipated his lifelong interest in disaffiliated populations.  He worked initially in alcoholism research at Columbia University with sociologist Howard M. Bahr.

Dr. Garrett joined the Department of Sociology at the University of Massachusetts Boston in 1970 and played many important roles in the department and the larger University community until his retirement in 2002, after which he was named professor emeritus.  He was a founder of the Department of Sociology’s Criminal Justice major, director of the University’s Alcohol and Substance Abuse Studies program, and acting chair for one year of the Department of Sociology.  He taught key courses in the sociology and criminal justice curricula, including Criminology, Corrections and an internship in Alcohol and Drugs.  His students rated his teaching as outstanding and he was a popular and beloved adviser to many.

Gerald R. Garrett was a nationally recognized expert in criminal justice, substance abuse studies, and homelessness.  He was coauthor, with Richard Rettig and Manuel Torres of Manny: A Criminal Addict’s Story (Houghton Mifflin), with Howard Bahr, of Women Alone: The Disaffiliation of Urban Females, with Calvin J. Larson, of Crime, Justice, and Society (Rowman and Littlefield) and with Russell Schutt, of Responding to the Homeless: Policy and Practice (Plenum).  He also published many articles and book chapters on these and related topics.  He served as President of the Northeastern Association of Criminal Justice Sciences, President of the International Coalition for Addiction Studies Education, was a member of the Higher Education Center for Alcohol & Substance Abuse Prevention,  was senior consultant for the Addiction Technology Transfer  Center of New England (with the goal of infusing alcohol and substance abuse knowledge into college curricula), and more recently, served as an adviser to the Alcohol and Substance Abuse Counseling Program at Middlesex Community College.  He helped build a strong legacy of applied sociology at UMass Boston.

Submitted by Russell K. Schutt


Edwin W. Zedlewski passed away on April 14, 2013.  As a career public servant for more than 35 years, Dr. Edwin Zedlewski helped form, shape, and nurture our nation’s criminal justice research agenda. He helped form and hone the research tools to understand “what works,” he helped broker a more effective partnership between research, practice, and public policy, and he made real lasting contributions to the safety of our communities and neighborhoods across the country.

To his colleagues at NIJ, Ed was known as a persistently optimistic, unflappable colleague with a “steel trap” memory and a flair for hosting impromptu “ice cream socials.” To the field, he became a consistent beacon of empiricism, evidence, and rigor in measuring what works and what’s promising in fighting crime. He dedicated his career to the work and the mission of NIJ and OJP.

Ed was been an employee of the U.S. Department of Justice from September, 1975 to February 2011. His years of public service were dedicated to the advancement of public safety through research and evaluation at the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Ed held several key posts at NIJ including Science Advisor to the NIJ Director (1984-1992), Director of Corrections Research (1992-1996), Director of Program Development, 1998-1999), Assistant Director (1999-2000), Senior Science Advisor (2001-2008), and Director of NIJ’s International Research Center (2008-present). His early accomplishments helped to lay the foundation of the National Institute of Justice: developing and administering NIJ’s evaluation program under the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988; serving as consultant to the President’s Commission on Organized Crime; conducting a study of DEA airport surveillance, a study later placed in evidence by the U.S. Solicitor General in Royer v. Florida; leading a three-year project integrating public- and private-sector investments into a general theory of crime prevention and deterrence; advising the Bureau of Justice Statistics on the design of the National Crime Survey; leading the development of the Corrections and Law Enforcement Family Support (CLEFS) program; and fostering  partnerships with the Ford Foundation and Harvard University’s Innovations in Government program and the Goldstein Awards in policing to highlight and accelerate the pace of innovation in criminal justice. Among his more recent achievements were his leadership in establishing NIJ’s Breaking the Cycle demonstration program; the Re-Entry Partnerships initiative; his contributions to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy subcommittee on Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, including contributing significantly to the 2005 OSTP publication on Research on Terrorism; and his formation of a new partnership on research supporting crime policy with the National Governor’s Association.

One of Ed’s most significant later achievements was the development and implementation of a cutting-edge demonstration project to test the utility of DNA for high-volume non-violent crimes in five U.S. jurisdictions. This study contributed significantly to revolutionizing the way that police agencies use DNA to solve high-volume crimes like burglaries and car thefts. Ed’s innovative approach, linking social/behavioral science and program evaluation to the emerging technology of DNA analysis and trace evidence helped to usher in what we know recognize as a new era in crime-solving, forensics, and policing.

Ed was an accomplished researcher and writer and authored many research papers including “DNA Analysis for “Minor” Crimes: A Major Benefit for Law Enforcement,” (2006, with Mary B. Murphy); “Why Prisons Matter,” (1997); “Private Security and Controlling Crime,” (1990); “The Economics of Disincarceration,” (1984);  “Space Flight, Street Crime, and Methodological Juxtaposition,” (1984); and “Performance Measurement in Public Agencies: The Law Enforcement Evolution,” (1979). Some of latest writing was as a contributing author to an edited volume on calculating costs of crime and the benefits of crime prevention initiatives.

Ed was a graduate of the Doctoral program in Economics at George Washington University, Washington, DC. Before joining the Department of Justice, he was a research analyst and consultant to the Chief of Naval Operations in the U.S. Navy.

He is survived by his wife Sheila, and their two sons, John and Charles.

Submitted by Thomas E. Feucht


Stanley Cohen, Emeritus Professor of Sociology in the London School of Economics, passed away in early January after a long battle with Parkinson's disease.  Stan was a transformative thinker with a unique ability to combine compelling scholarship with a passionate commitment to social justice.  He was also an  inspiring mentor, helpful colleague and valued friend to so many fortunate enough to have known him.

Stan was born in 1942 and grew up in South Africa.  He studied sociology and social work at the University of Witwatersrand and later moved to London with his wife Ruth to work as a psychiatric social worker.  In 1963, he entered the London School of Economics to pursue doctoral research on social responses to vandalism.  His PhD dissertation provided the basis for his book Folk Devils and Moral Panics (1972).   In this work, Stan proposed the term and concept "moral panic" to connote how overreactions to minor and/or extreme forms of deviance can make matters far worse.  Moral panic is now a part of the English language and is routinely employed in criminology and sociology studies.

After a move to Durham University in 1967 and later to the University of Essex in 1972, Stan began collaboration with Laurie Taylor.  They were founding members of the National Deviancy Conference in 1968, which challenged criminological orthodoxy.  Their study of the conditions and effects of long-term imprisonment in H Wing in Durham Prison, Psychological Survival (1972), significantly heightened prison policy concerns in the Home Office.  That book along with Prison Secrets (1976) which discussed the lack of clear-cut inmate rights in prison, set the stage for Stan's celebrated "dispersal of control" thesis.

Drawing upon the legacy of Orwell as much as Foucault, Stan's Visions of Social Control (1985) analyzed the ever-widening social control reach of the state into everyday life,  employing such metaphors as net-widening, mesh-thinning, exclusion and inclusion.  This classic book provided a comprehensive and sweeping analysis of the growth of Western systems of social control and how this historic growth shapes and informs their current and likely future patterns.  Visions of Social Control demonstrated the value of studying social control and the role of ideology from a past, present and future perspective while refraining from reliance upon traditional ideological battles.  As a result, the book  transcended mere ideological or theoretical categorization.  Rather, it was an exemplar of confronting theory with best available empirical evidence and allowing the resulting arguments/conclusions to stand as they emerged whether ambiguous or nuanced.  This, indeed, was a hallmark of Stan's work that was without unambiguous conclusions but  replete with original,  prescient and altogether thoughtful arguments that always push readers to think in new and different ways. Over the past quarter century since its publication, and especially since 9/11, many of his predictions of ever greater inclusionary and exclusionary controls have been all too fully borne out.

A later phase of Stan's work was his book States of Denial:  Knowing about Atrocities and Suffering (2001) which combined his rich expertise in criminology with his concern for human rights that was shaped by his growing up in the turmoil of apartheid South Africa and later witnessing firsthand the plight of the Palestinians while living in Israel.  The book focused upon reactions to information about inhumanities and cruelties and how states and the powerful can employ "techniques of neutralization" to avoid embarrassing realities.  States of Denial was chosen as Outstanding Publication of 2001 by the International Division of the American Society of Criminology and was awarded the 2002 British Academy Book Prize.

Stan's many contributions to our understanding of crime, punishment, delinquency, mass media and human rights resulted in numerous awards and recognitions including in 1998 the Sellin-Glueck Award from the American Society of Criminology and his election as a fellow of the British Academy.  Stan received Honorary Doctorates from the University of Essex in 2004 and Middlesex in 2008.  In 2009 he received the Outstanding Achievement Award from the British Society of Criminology.

Throughout Stan's career, he maintained a sense of skepticism, irony, fascination, and humor about social life.  Moreover, and particularly noteworthy to the current debate over "public sociology" and “public criminology" regarding scholar versus activist/policy roles, Stan effectively embraced both.  He recognized that committed scholarship involved a delicate balance even when scholars are clearly informed about a particular area or situation. Stan understood that it is not a matter of committed scholars becoming embroiled in public policy debates by supporting a particular policy.  Rather, committed scholars need to identify and explain what policy choices and likely consequences are involved in particular decisions. As Stan exemplified throughout his career, objective scholarship cannot be trumped by mere advocacy or the "taking sides" for some particular policy choice but rather seeking a curious and simultaneous balance between detachment and passion. 

We are confident that Stan's work will continue to prove durable and that future generations will be able to employ and test their sense of reality against the standards he set.  

Thomas Blomberg
David Downes


Carol Hirschon Weiss, considered the “founding mother” of program and policy evaluation, died on January 8, 2013, at the age of 86.  At the time of her death, she was the Beatrice Whiting Professor Emeritus of Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, where she had taught since 1978.

Although Carol received her Ph.D. in Sociology in 1977 (from Columbia University) and did not publish in criminology journals, her influence on the field is unmistakable. Her 1972 book, Evaluation Research: Methods of Assessing Program Effectiveness, was one of the first books devoted to methods for assessing program implementation, process and outcomes. It became the guide to evaluation practice across many social program fields, including criminal justice. Most scholarly books are lucky to sell more than a few hundred copies; Carol’s book sold several hundred thousand copies and is still on the prime shelf of evaluators and scholars. Carol’s later evaluation text, Evaluation: Methods for Studying Programs and Policies, published in 1998, reflected the growth of scholarship and practice of evaluation as it was about three times the size of her first book, and it became another classic in the field.

Besides her considerable influence on the genesis and growth of evaluation practice and scholarship, Carol was also renowned for her work in the area of knowledge utilization, a forerunner to today’s focus on evidence-based policy. She recognized that the main goal of most research, ultimately, was to influence policy decisions, but her research over four decades indicated that it was rare to have direct instrumental effects on government choices. In fact, Carol once wrote, in her beautiful prose, that the effort put into finding such examples was “protracted and painful.” Instead, Carol wrote that the more common outcome of research was to affect the way people asked questions or thought about the issues, which she termed “conceptual use.” This impact often occurred over a long term through a mechanism she described as the “circuitry of enlightenment.”

My personal contact with Carol began in 1997.  After I finished my doctorate, I was brooding over what to do next. I came across an advertisement for a post-doctoral fellowship at Harvard focused on evaluating programs for children. When I saw that the fellowship director was Carol Weiss, I rushed to put my application in, and was very fortunate to get selected. I was not disappointed. In the first cohort, there were just four post-docs, and we had Carol all to ourselves. I would give anything to go back to that little room in a Harvard Square loft, sitting with Carol and my three fellow post-docs.  We shared many lunches in the Square together, and she loved holding court while we peppered her with questions on all things evaluative.  It was Carol who inspired us to put together a volume of New Directions in Evaluation (published in 2000), focusing it on the fellowship theme she organized around her own version of how to understand why a program works, that she called “theory-based evaluation.”

During that fellowship, I shared the story of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) with her. She became so enamored with the story of how research was used (or not used) in the D.A.R.E. program, that she pushed us to write a proposal together, and we eventually were funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to study it.  We spent the next five years working together, and had so many great conversations about the role of research and evaluation in the policy decision process, a subject she never tired of talking about.  Although we started with the premise that research on D.A.R.E. was being ignored, it turned out to be a much more complex and nuanced story.

I learned so many things from Carol. She taught me that one can be creative with language, even in writing for the social sciences. She used the English language to make her titles and articles so engaging and eye-catching. One of her last papers was entitled “The Fairy Godmother—and her Warts: Making the Dream of Evidence-Based Policy Come True.” Who could even think to use a phrase like this in the title of the leading evaluation journal in the world (the American Journal of Evaluation)? Carol would. Another was her famous paper on alternative approaches to experiments for assessing causality, which she entitled “What to do Until the Random Assigner Comes?” for a book published by Brookings Press in 2002. Some may disagree with her arguments, but that is interesting writing.

She also taught me how to be graceful in light of criticisms. She was unflappable and civil no matter what reviewers or other evaluation theorists said. While we worked together, I had come across a number of published criticisms of her work on several fronts. In one article, the author wrote that Carol was too pessimistic about the influence of research in policy; in another, a colleague wrote that she didn’t emphasize randomized experiments enough; and, in still another, she was listed as a theorist who failed to emphasize the unique roles of context and theory to understanding program impact.  But while I would be stewing over them because I believed they were gross exaggerations of more nuanced arguments she had made, she would always laugh the criticisms off. In fact, I had the distinct sense that Carol enjoyed engaging in all of these debates. She had a deep appreciation for all approaches to evaluation and she was not evangelical about pushing any particular strategy to the exclusion of others. Carol was very rigorous and careful in her work, but she also had a view that we should “let 1,000 flowers bloom” so that we can learn from the various approaches. She was especially fond and respectful of evaluators on the front lines in the field who were trying to produce good studies in face of political pressures and resource constraints, particularly those working in developing nations or impoverished communities.

Carol and I shared the same birthday (November 7), and we enjoyed sending each other notes of well wishes on that day. We also exchanged holiday wishes this year, and in Carol’s style not to focus on her own problems, there was never even a hint in her communications that her health was not well. The field of evaluation will miss her greatly, and I will miss her, not only as an amazing writer and theorist, but also as a mentor and friend.

Anthony Petrosino

*I appreciate the comments of Natalie Lacerino-Paquet, Susan Mundry, Claire Morgan, Sarah Guckenburg and Janet Phlegar on this draft.